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 Среда, 30 Апреля 2014

Аванесов Александр

Ситуация с накопительной пенсией в Армении остается неясной

Ситуация с накопительной пенсией в Армении остается неясной

 Работодатели в Армении до 30 сентября 2014 года будут освобождены от выплат
штрафов за невыполнение обязательных удержаний в пенсионной системе. Об этом 30
апреля с трибуны Национального Собрания РА заявил министр труда и социальных
вопросов РА Артрем Асатрян, в первом чтении представивший дополнения к закону
"О накопительной пенсии".


Как отметил министр,
17 апреля премьер-министр РА Овик Абрамян предложил временно приостановить
расчет штрафов по закону "О


накопительных пенсиях". После очередного
заседания правительства Армении Абрамян провел совещание, в ходе которого
поручил в сжатые сроки подготовить проект закона, согласно которому будет
приостановлен расчет штрафов по закону "О накопительных пенсиях" до
принятия Национальным Собранием Армении пакета законов, предусмотренных
решением Конституционного суда от 2-го апреля. Тем самым, продолжил министр, до
30 сентября де-факто приостанавливается действие обязательного компонента
закона до принятия соответствующего пакета законов. Представленный законопроект
является промежуточным для решения проблемы.


Тем не менее, в ходе обсуждений
выяснилось, что и законодатели, и представители исполнительной власти толком не
знают, взимать накопительную пенсию или нет. Депутат от правящей РПА Акоп
Акопян по степени обсуждаемости даже сравнил вопрос об обязательном компоненте
накопительной пенсии с карабахским  и
"армянским" вопросами.  По его
словам,  работодателям предоставлено
право не взимать штрафов, но при этом остаются в силе положения, касающиеся
обязательного компонента. По его словам, предпринимается лишь попытка
урегулировать проблемы, которая должна найти свое разрешение до 30 сентября.


2 апреля Конституционный суд Армении
обнародовал решение по делу относительно конституционности ряда положений
Закона РА <О накопительных пенсиях>, согласно которому, ряд статей закона
признаны противоречащими требованиями Конституции и недействительными. Суд, по
сути, удовлетворил иск стороны заявителя. 
В решении отмечается, что предмет спора непосредственно связан с правом
на собственность. КС считает, что правовые нормы должны стать предметом
обсуждения в первую очередь с точки зрения права на собственность. Кроме того,
в решении говорится, что закон РА "О накопительных пенсиях" не
регулирует то, что должен делать гражданин, получающий минимальную заработную
плату в размере 45 000 драмов, в нем не были учтены и требования закона о
минимальной потребительской корзине и минимальном бюджете жизнеобеспечения.
"Каждый имеет право на оплату труда не менее минимального размера оплаты
труда, следовательно, минимальная заработная плата не может быть меньше
установленной", - зачитал глава КС Гагик Арутюнян. Конституционный суд
констатировал, что правительство и парламент Армении должны защищать право
граждан на собственность. Согласно решению суда, до 30-го сентября 2014 года
парламент и правительство Армении должны внести изменения в некоторые положения
закона. До этого времени все пенсионные выплаты должны быть пересмотрены.



Отметим, что добровольная система накопительного
пенсионного обеспечения была внедрена в Армении с 1 января 2011 года, а с 1
января 2014 года новая система стала носить обязательный характер. Участниками
этой системы стали граждане, родившиеся после 1 января 1974 года (все лица,
моложе 40 лет). Согласно закону "О накопительной пенсии",  базовая минимальная пенсия будет равна
величине прожиточного минимума, а основная пенсия составит 150% к величине
прожиточного минимума. Ежемесячные обязательные выплаты составят 5% от размера
зарплаты, еще 5% (но не более 25 тыс. 
драмов) поступят на накопительный счет со стороны государства. Оппоненты
новой пенсионной системы, проводщие различные акции протеста, считают, что ее
обязательный характер нарушает права граждан и противоречит Конституции РА, а
также фундаментальным правам и свободам человека.

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